Reported Post–COVID19 Vaccine Myocarditis Adverse Events by Age Group and Vaccine Type
Shedding the Light on Post-Vaccine Myocarditis and Pericarditis in COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients (Figure 2)
Abstract ( Published: 15 October 2021, Hajjo, Rima, Dima A. Sabbah, Sanaa K. Bardaweel, and Alexander Tropsha. Vaccines. 2021; 9(10):1186. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101186)
Myocarditis and pericarditis have been linked recently to COVID-19 vaccines without exploring the underlying mechanisms, or compared to cardiac adverse events post-non-COVID-19 vaccines. We introduce an informatics approach to study post-vaccine adverse events on the systems biology level to aid the prioritization of effective preventive measures and mechanism-based pharmacotherapy by integrating the analysis of adverse event reports from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) with systems biology methods.
Our results indicated that post-vaccine myocarditis and pericarditis were associated most frequently with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines followed by live or live-attenuated non-COVID-19 vaccines such as smallpox and anthrax vaccines. The frequencies of cardiac adverse events were affected by vaccine, vaccine type, vaccine dose, sex, and age of the vaccinated individuals. Systems biology results suggested a central role of interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) in the biological processes leading to cardiac adverse events, by impacting MAPK and JAK-STAT signaling pathways.
We suggest that increasing the time interval between vaccine doses minimizes the risks of developing inflammatory adverse reactions. We also propose glucocorticoids as preferred treatments based on system biology evidence. Our informatics workflow provides an invaluable tool to study post-vaccine adverse events on the systems biology level to suggest effective mechanism-based pharmacotherapy and/or suitable preventive measures.
Related Article :
Myocarditis and Pericarditis following COVID-19 Vaccination: Inequalities in Age and Vaccine Types, Li M, Yuan J, Lv G, Brown J, Jiang X, Lu ZK. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(11):1106. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111106